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Apiculture- The Maintenance Of Bee Colonies

Beekeeping (or Apiculture ) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or “bee yard” .At present, the cultivation of these natural bees has opened the door to new possibilities in agriculture.

๐—–๐—ผ๐—บ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐˜ƒ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฒ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ฏ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ๐˜€

The beekeepers mostly take care of only those bee species whose names start with โ€œApisโ€- as they are the only species which produce honey. Common species of honey bees that are reared are as follows:

  • ๐‘จ๐’‘๐’Š๐’” ๐’…๐’๐’“๐’”๐’‚๐’•๐’‚: It is also referred to as the rock bee. It is a giant bee and produces about 38 to 40 kg of honey per colony.
  • ๐‘จ๐’‘๐’Š๐’” ๐’Š๐’๐’…๐’Š๐’„๐’‚: It is also referred to as the Indian bee. It can be easily domesticated and is most commonly used for honey production. The annual yield of honey is 2 to 5 kg per colony.
  • ๐‘จ๐’‘๐’Š๐’” ๐’‡๐’๐’๐’“๐’‚: It is also referred to as the little bee. It rarely stings and thus honey extraction from its hive is easy. It produces about 1 kg of honey per colony per year.
  • ๐‘จ๐’‘๐’Š๐’” ๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’Š๐’‡๐’†๐’“๐’‚: It is also referred to as the Italian bee.

๐—›๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜† & ๐—ช๐—ฎ๐˜… : Honey bees produce beeswax from special glands on their abdomens that produce wax droplets that harden into flakes when exposed to air. The worker bees take these flakes in their mouths to soften them into a workable material that attaches to the honeycomb.

๐—•๐—ฒ๐—ฒ ๐—ธ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ฏ๐—ผ๐˜…:

In Bangladesh mainly Indian bees are reared. The beehive is usually made of jack fruit wood and measures 26.6 cm x 26.6 cm x 16.4 cm. It is open at the bottom, which is placed on a wooden deck. There is a wooden lid on the box. There are seven parallel wooden frames under the lid. These bees tie the knot. Another cell with a frame is placed on this cell. The upper cell is called the honey cell and the lower cell is called the baby cell. A beehive should be set up in a relatively high, secluded, smokeless or gas-free, dry and shady area with ample flowering plants in the vicinity.

๐—•๐—ฒ๐—ฒ ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—น๐—น๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป & ๐—”๐—ฟ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ณ๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ถ๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—™๐—ผ๐—ผ๐—ฑ

Indian bees collect their food from nature. For the first 3/4 days of boxing, it is necessary to give artificial food such as sugar syrup or syrup. The bees then collect their own food. Sometimes there is a shortage of food in the environment and it is necessary to give artificial food.

๐—™๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—ฏ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ๐˜€, ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—บ๐—ผ๐˜€๐˜ ๐—ถ๐—บ๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐˜๐—ฎ๐—ป๐˜ ๐—ฝ๐—น๐—ฎ๐—ป๐˜๐˜€ ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐˜๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐—ฒ spring vegetation, such as hazel, snowdrops, primroses, saffron, willow, hellebore, heather, wild cherry, dandelion,fruit trees. acacia, linden, maple, chestnut,woodland undergrowth and. meadow flowers.

S๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐—น ๐— ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜

1๏ธโƒฃDuring the breeding season, when the queen bee lays a lot of eggs and the number of bees in a bee hive increases, it is the breeding season. During the breeding season, a new frame has to be given in the nursery. If necessary, the old and defective queen has to be removed and a new queen has to be added. Bees usually swarm towards the end of the growing season. Necessary measures should be taken to ensure that the bees do not fly away in swarms.

2๏ธโƒฃDuring food storage, bees make honey from flower juice and deposit it in the hive. So that there is no shortage of space to keep honey, more new wheels have to be given in the honey house. When the bees cover 75 per cent of the hardness of the bee with a thick layer of honey, they have to extract the honey from the bee. If necessary, some beehives should be removed from the beehive and moved to another place so that the bees can store more honey from a particular area. The bees should be covered with sackcloth or sack on winter nights so that the bees do not suffer in the severe winter.

3๏ธโƒฃThis syrup is made by mixing sugar syrup to meet the food shortage in nature during the food crisis. The container in which the syrup will be served should be placed inside the beaker and a stick or leaf should be given after the syrup so that the bees can sit on it and eat the juice. The syrup should be served at a certain time of the night (evening), so that the bees in the other bee do not come and fight for food

๐—›๐—ผ๐˜„ ๐˜๐—ผ ๐— ๐—ฎ๐—ถ๐—ป๐˜๐—ฎ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—–๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—ฎ ๐—•๐—ฒ๐—ฒ๐—ต๐—ถ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ

Repair or replace damaged parts. Install entrance blocks. Install excluders and supers. Replace any lost beeswax. Install a rain cover and shade structure. Provide adequate ventilation. Provide a windbreak. Control woodlice and termites. Protect it from bears, raccoons, skunks, and mice.

๐—›๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜† ๐—–๐—ผ๐—น๐—น๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ฃ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€:

  • Step 1: Open the Hive. Using a smoker, approach the beehive from behind and puff the smoke around the hive entrance.
  • Step 2: Remove Bees from the Hive.
  • Step 3: Uncap the Honey.
  • Step 4: Extract the Honey.
  • Step 5: Filter & Bottle Your Honey.

C๐—ผ๐˜€๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—”๐—ฝ๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐˜‚๐—น๐˜๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐—ฒ:

Bee-boxes can be placed around the house, on the veranda, on the roof or in the garden. The total investment for setting up bee farms with 5 bee colonies of ๐‘จ๐’‘๐’Š๐’” ๐’”๐’†๐’“๐’†๐’๐’‚ species will be 15-16 thousand rupees. On an average, 10 kg of honey can be obtained from each box per year, with a market price of Rs 250 to Rs 2,500. As such, the price of honey produced from 5 boxes will be 5-10 kg – 250 rupees (per kg) = 12,500 rupees. This income will continue for 10-15 years. On the other hand, the total cost for setting up a bee farm with 5 bee colonies of ๐‘จ๐’‘๐’Š๐’” ๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’Š๐’‡๐’†๐’“๐’‚ species will be 25 to 26 thousand rupees. In this case also bee-boxes and other machinery and equipment can be used for 10-15 years. No need to invest any more money. It is possible to collect up to 50 kg of honey per year from each bee-box of ๐‘จ๐’‘๐’Š๐’” ๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’Š๐’‡๐’†๐’“๐’‚ species, with a market price of 50 kg-Rs.250 (per kg) – 5 boxes = Rs.82,500. In case of setting up a project, it is possible to earn more than Tk 60,000 per year by making a one-time investment of only Tk 25,000-26,000. It goes without saying that there is no investment or cost.

Tasnim Zaman

Student of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University.

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